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Marsman D, D. W. Belsky 路 D. Gregori 路 M. A. Johnson 路 T. Low Dog 路 S. Meydani 路 S. Pigat 路 R. Sadana 路 A. Shao 路 J. C. Griffiths
European Journal of Nutrition
01/06/2018

Healthy ageing: the natural consequences of good nutrition鈥攁 conference report

Many countries are witnessing a marked increase in longevity and with this increased lifespan and the desire for healthy ageing, many, however, suffer from the opposite including mental and physical deterioration, lost productivity and quality of life, and increased medical costs. While adequate nutrition is fundamental for good health, it remains unclear what impact various dietary interventions may have on prolonging good quality of life. Studies which span age, geography and income all suggest that access to quality foods, host immunity and response to inflammation/infections, impaired senses (i.e., sight, taste, smell) or mobility are all factors which can limit intake or increase the body’s need for specific micronutrients. New clinical studies of healthy ageing are needed and quantitative biomarkers are an essential component, particularly tools which can measure improvements in physiological integrity throughout life, thought to be a primary contributor to a long and productive life (a healthy “lifespan”). A framework for progress has recently been proposed in a WHO report which takes a broad, person-centered focus on healthy ageing, emphasizing the need to better understand an individual’s intrinsic capacity, their functional abilities at various life stages, and the impact by mental, and physical health, and the environments they inhabit.

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Assessing vitamin D safety following fortification and supplementation intake scenarios using the EFSA Comprehensive Database: the ODIN approach

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Pigat, S., Connolly, A., Cushen, M., Cullen, M. & O鈥橫ahony, C.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
19/02/2018

A probabilistic intake model to estimate the impact of reformulation by the food industry among Irish consumers. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 0, 1鈥8 (2018).

This project quantified the impact that voluntary reformulation efforts of the food industry had on the Irish population鈥檚 nutrient intake. Nutrient composition data on reformulated products were collected from 14 major food companies for two years, 2005 and 2012. Probabilistic intake assessments were performed using the Irish national food consumption surveys as dietary intake data. The nutrient data were weighted by market shares replacing existing food composition data for these products. The reformulation efforts assessed, significantly reduced mean energy intakes by up to 12鈥塳cal/d (adults), 15鈥塳cal/d (teens), 19鈥塳cal/d (children) and 9鈥塳cal/d (pre-schoolers). Mean daily fat intakes were reduced by up to 1.3鈥塯/d, 1.3鈥塯/d, 0.9鈥塯/d and 0.6鈥塯/d, saturated fat intakes by up to 1.7鈥塯/d, 2.3鈥塯/d, 1.8鈥塯/d and 1鈥塯/d, sugar intakes by up to 1鈥塯/d, 2鈥塯/d, 3.5鈥塯/d and 1鈥塯/d and sodium intakes by up to 0.6鈥塯/d, 0.5鈥塯/d, 0.2鈥塯/d, 0.3鈥塯/d for adults, teenagers, children and pre-school children, respectively. This model enables to assess the impact of industry reformulation amongst Irish consumers鈥 nutrient intakes, using consumption, food composition and market share data.

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Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries, Genes and Nutrition

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0鈥攃ontrol group鈥攔eceiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3鈥攔eceiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8聽years (ranging from 18 to 79聽years). Of these participants, 60.9聽% were women and 96.7聽% were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5聽kg聽m鈭2, and 44.8聽% of the participants had a BMI聽鈮ヂ25.0聽kg聽m鈭2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.

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Vin K, Connolly A, McCaffrey T, McKevitt A, O’Mahony C, Prieto M, Tennant D, Hearty A, Volatier JL.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(12):2050-80. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.851417. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
04/12/2013

Estimation of the dietary intake of 13 priority additives in France, Italy, the UK and Ireland as part of the FACET project鈥.

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of 13 priority additives in four European countries (France, Italy, the UK and Ireland) using the Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task (FACET) software. The studied additives were benzoates (E210-213), nitrites (E249-250) and sulphites (E220-228), butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), polysorbates (E432-436), sucroses esters and sucroglycerides (E473-474), polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475), stearoyl-lactylates (E481-482), sorbitan esters (E493-494 and E491-495), phosphates (E338-343/E450-452), aspartame (E951) and acesulfame (E950). A conservative approach (based on individual consumption data combined with maximum permitted levels (Tier 2)) was compared with more refined estimates (using a fitted distribution of concentrations based on data provided by the food industry (Tier 3)). These calculations demonstrated that the estimated intake is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nine of the studied additives. However, there was a potential theoretical exceedance of the ADI observed for four additives at Tier 3 for high consumers (97.5th percentile) among children: E220-228 in the UK and Ireland, E432-436 and E481-482 in Ireland, Italy and the UK, and E493-494 in all countries. The mean intake of E493-494 could potentially exceed the ADI for one age group of children (aged 1-4 years) in the UK. For adults, high consumers only in all countries had a potential intake higher than the ADI for E493-494 at Tier 3 (an additive mainly found in bakery wares). All other additives examined had an intake below the ADI. Further refined exposure assessments may be warranted to provide a more in-depth investigation for those additives that exceeded the ADIs in this paper. This refinement may be undertaken by the introduction of additive occurrence data, which take into account the actual presence of these additives in the different food groups.

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O’Mahony Cian, Vilone Giulia
EFSA Supporting Publications – Volume10, Issue4 April 2013 415E
19/04/2013

Compiled European Food Consumption Database

Food consumption data is a key element of EFSA’s risk assessment activities, forming the basis of dietary exposure assessment at the European level. In 2011, EFSA released the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, gathering detailed consumption data from 34 national food consumption surveys representing 66,492 individuals from 22 EU Member States. Due to different survey methodologies used, national survey data cannot be combined to generate average European estimates of dietary exposure. Although the EU menu project, which aims to collect harmonised food consumption data at EU level, will address this limitation of the Comprehensive database, data from this project will not be available until 2018. The present methodological study was executed to assess how the compatibility or existing consumption data as well as the representativeness of food dietary exposure and risk estimates at the European level could be improved through the development of a “Compiled European Food Consumption Database To create Such a dat abase, the usual intake distributions of 589 food items representing the total diet were estimated for 36 clusters, each one composed of subjects belonging to the same age class (children, adolescents or adults). gender and having a similar diet. An adapted form of the NCI (National Cancer Institute) method was used for this, with a number of important modifications. Season, body weight and whether or not the food was consumed at the weekend were used to predict the probability of consumption. Additionally, the gamma distribution was found to be more suitable for modelling the distribution of food amounts n the different food groups instead f the normal distribution. These distributions were combined with food correlation matrices according to the Iman and Conover method in order to simulate 28 days of consumption for 40,000 simulated individuals. The simulated data were validated by comparing the consumption statistics (e.g. mean, median and certain percentiles) of the simulated individuals to the same statistics estimated from the observed individuals of the Comprehensive Database. The same comparison was done at food group level for each cluster. The opportunities and limitations of using the simulated database for exposure assessments are described.

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O’Mahony Cian, Dennis L Seman
In book: The Stability and Shelf Life of Food, Edition: Second, Chapter: 9, Publisher: Elsevier, Editors: Persis Subramaniam, pp.253-284
01/12/2016

Modeling the Microbiological Shelf Life of Foods and Beverages

From about 1985 to 2015, the subject of predictive microbiology has become a mature area of study in and of itself. The ability to predict the growth of a bacterial species within a food matrix for a given set of intrinsic and environmental conditions offers many advantages and benefits to the food industry professional, and chief among these is the ability to determine shelf life using mathematical models.

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Kettler Susanne & Marc Kennedy, Cronan McNamara, Regina Oberd枚rfer, CianO’Mahony, J眉rgen Schnabel, Benjamin Smith, Corinne Sprong, Roland Faludi, DavidTennant
Food and Chemical Toxicology – Volume 82, August 2015, Pages 79-95
15/04/2015

Assessing and reporting uncertainties in dietary exposure analysis: Mapping of uncertainties in a tiered approach

Uncertainty analysis is an important component of dietary exposure assessments in order to understand correctly the strength and limits of its results. Often, standard screening procedures are applied in a first step which results in conservative estimates. If through those screening procedures a potential exceedance of health-based guidance values is indicated, within the tiered approach more refined models are applied. However, the sources and types of uncertainties in deterministic and probabilistic models can vary or differ.

A key objective of this work has been the mapping of different sources and types of uncertainties to better understand how to best use uncertainty analysis to generate more realistic comprehension of dietary exposure. In dietary exposure assessments, uncertainties can be introduced by knowledge gaps about the exposure scenario, parameter and the model itself. With this mapping, general and model-independent uncertainties have been identified and described, as well as those which can be introduced and influenced by the specific model during the tiered approach.

This analysis identifies that there are general uncertainties common to point estimates (screening or deterministic methods) and probabilistic exposure assessment methods. To provide further clarity, general sources of uncertainty affecting many dietary exposure assessments should be separated from model-specific uncertainties.

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Oldring PK, O’Mahony C, Dixon J, Vints M, Mehegan J, Dequatre C, Castle L.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(3):444-65. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.862348. Epub 2014 Jan 15.
15/01/2014

Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys.

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Oldring PK, Castle L, O’Mahony C, Dixon J.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(3):466-89. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.860240. Epub 2014 Jan 20
20/01/2014

Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.

Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.

The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19-64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005-0.012 mg dm(-2). The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the lowest and the highest estimates from the refined deterministic calculations. Since this should be the case, for a fully probabilistic compared with a deterministic approach, it is concluded that the FACET tool has been verified in this example. A recent EFSA draft opinion on exposure to BPA from different sources showed that canned foods were a major contributor and compared results from various models, including those from FACET. The results from FACET were overall conservative.

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Oldring P. K. T. – Valspar Corporation UK, F. Savrij Droste, R. Whitaker, D. Smith
Jct Coatings Tech 11(1):30-40
01/01/2014

Light Metal Packaging Methodology for Foodstuffs – FACET

Light metal packaging for foodstuffs primarily encompasses cans, closures, and aerosols. For cans used in the European Union (EU), the majority are beverage cans with about 45 billion used per annum (pa) compared to ap-proximately 20 billion food cans pa. Metal closures are subdivided into about 20 billion closures for jars and 80 bil-ion crowns for bottles per year. The ILSI Monograph on Light Metal Packaging for Foodstuffs1 contains background information for the reader unfamiliar with this type of packaging. The FACET project (Flavours, Additives and food Contact materials Exposure Tool) was a four-year project that was partially funded by the European Commission within its Framework FP7 Programme. The project ran from September 2008 until August 2012. FACET was coordinated by University College Dublin and it involved 20 research partners from across Europe, coming from academia, industry, research centers, and small- to medium-sized enterprises. Hearty et al. provided an early overview of the project plan2 and Oldring et al.3,4 offered a view of the part of the project plan that dealt specifically with packaging materials. More recently, the use of FACET for assessing exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging has been reported.5 As the name indicates, the FACET expo-sure tool provides a single platform with the functionality to estimate consumer exposure to three types of food chemicals, namely chemical food additives (鈥淓-numbers鈥), chemically defined flavoring substances added to foods, and sub-stances used to make food contact materials. A PC-based desktop application, the FACET exposure tool is publicly avail-able and free of charge. The software tool was developed and populated with data gathered throughout the course of the project, with the facility of uploading any additional data that the end-user might have. This article describes how the information was gathered for the light metal packaging portion of the FACET tool.

FACET Light metal packaging methodology for foodstuffs coatings tech

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Mistura Lorenz, Stefania Sette, Cian O鈥橫ahony, Karl-Heinz Engel, John Mehegan, Catherine Leclercq On behalf of the Flavours, Additives, and Food Contact Material Exposure Task (FACET) Consortium
Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 58, August 2013, Pages 236-241
01/08/2013

Modelling framework for assessment of dietary exposure to added flavouring substances within the FACET (Flavours, Additives, and Food Contact Material Exposure Task) project.

This paper provides a model to assess dietary exposure to flavouring substances intentionally added to food. The purpose is to describe the approaches currently available and their scientific basis. The proposed exposure model for flavouring substances envisages three different levels of refinement: basic, intermediate and refined. At the two first levels, the model may be applied to all 2543 substances actually in use in Europe, while the refined level has been applied to 41 target flavouring substances selected within the FACET project. The refined level entails the use of the probability of addition of the flavouring substance added to the food and of correction factors related to losses owing to the processing of a food.

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EFSA, EFSA. (2007) Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Plant protection products and their Residues on acute dietary intake assessment of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables.

Acute dietary intake is one of the factors considered by Member States, the European Commission and international authorities when setting Maximum Residue Leve is (MRL S) for pesticides. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg that is legally permitted in or on a food or agricultural commodity or animal feedstuff. The measure of acute dietary exposure that is used in MRL-setting is the International Estimate of Short Term Intake (IESTI). The IESTI is calculated using one of 4 standard equations, de pending on the type of commodity involved. An MRL above the limit of detection is set for a Commodity only it is ESI does not exceed the Acute Reference Dose (ARTD) or the pesticide concerned. The re are discussions at international level about whether to change the way that IESTI equations are calculated. Therefore the European Commission asked the EFSA Scientific Panel on Plant protection products and their Residues (PPR Fane) for an opinion on how conservative the ESTI equation is, With respect to the percentage or the total European population protected from intakes above the ARTD, and how much this would be altered by changes to the way the IESTTIs calculated. However, the Panel is aware that risk managers are also interested in the special case of people who consume a commodity containing residues at the MRL. Therefore the Panel undertook two types of assessment: “total population assessments”, estimating the level of protection for the total population based on the levels of pesticides observed in monitoring programs, and “MRL-level assessments” for the special case of people who consume one commodity containing residues at the MRL and other commodities at monitoring levels. The Panel estimated acute dietary intakes by probabilistic mode ling This used dat a on food consumption and body we ight from national surveys, and took account of unit-to-unit variability of residues using variability factors. The probabilistic estimates of intakes were higher than measured intakes from a duplicate diet study, suggesting the Pane木’s results are conservative .e. overestimating intakes and underestimating levels of protection. However, this comparison was possible for only 6 pesticides in one country and one age group, and extrapolation to others countries and age groups is uncertain. It was not possible to conduct probabilistic modelling for the entire population of the Eu, or for all pesticides. The Panel conducte聽 total population assessments for a number of scenarios representing different combinations of 13 pesticides, 8 countries and a range of age groups from babies to seniors. For practical reasons, the MRL-level assessments were base d on a reduce d range or scenarios, representing only two countries (Germany and The Netherlands) and 11 pesticides. For the total population, the Pane木’s estimates suggested that the level of protection (LoP) provided by the IESTI equation as currently used in the EU (including variability factors of 5 & 7) varies quite widely between different countries, age groups and pesticides. For some pesticide/country/age group scenarios the estimated LoP was between 99 and 99.9%, i.e.

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Comiskey, Api, Barrett, Ellis, McNamara, O’Mahony, Robison, Rose, Safford, Smith, Tozer
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Aug;88:144-156. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.05.017. Epub 2017 May 27.
27/05/2017

Integrating habits and practices data for soaps, cosmetics and air care products into an existing aggregate exposure model.

In order to accurately assess aggregate exposure to a fragrance material in consumers, data are needed on consumer habits and practices, as well as the concentration of the fragrance material in those products. The present study describes the development of Phase 2 Creme RIFM model by expanding the previously developed Phase 1 model to include an additional six product types. Using subject-matching algorithms, the subjects in the Phase 1 Creme RIFM database were paired with subjects in the SUPERB and BodyCare surveys based on age and gender. Consumption of the additional products was simulated to create a seven day diary allowing full data integration in a consistent format. The inhalation route was also included for air care and other products where a fraction of product used is inhaled, derived from the RIFM 2-box model. The expansion of the Phase 1 Creme RIFM model has resulted in a more extensive and refined model, which covers a broader range of product categories and now, includes all relevant routes of exposure. An evaluation of the performance of the model has been carried out in an accompanying publication to this one.

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Safford B & A.M.Api, C.Barratt, D.Comiskey, G.Ellis, C.McNamara, C.O’Mahony, S.Robison, J.Rose, B.Smith, S.Tozeri
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 86, June 2017, Pages 148-156
28/02/2017

Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products

As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as 渭g/kg聽bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5鈥25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients.

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Comiskey D., Api AM2, Barratt C3, Daly EJ1, Ellis G4, McNamara C1, O’Mahony C1, Robison SH5, Safford B6, Smith B7, Tozer S8.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Aug;72(3):660-72. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.05.012. Epub 2015 May 19
19/05/2015

Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject’s frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.

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Safford B., A.M.Api, C.Barratt, D.Comiskey, G.Ellis, E.J. Daly, C.McNamara, C.O’Mahony, S.Robison, B.Smith, S.Tozeri
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 72, Issue 3, August 2015, Pages 673-682
01/08/2015

Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

Background:
Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.
Methods:

Determination of aggregate exposure to a number of fragrance ingredients was conducted using a model developed by Creme Global in conjunction with RIFM (described here as the Creme RIFM model). Full details of the model are given in a concurrent publication (Comiskey et al., 2015).

The model uses probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to allow sampling from distributions of data sets providing a more realistic estimate of aggregate exposure to individuals across a population. The Creme RIFM

Results:

The results for both applied product exposure and fragrance ingredient exposure are reported below. It should be noted that the applied product amount refers to the amount of product that is retained on the skin after application, taking into account the product retention factors. This product retention factor also helps define exposure to the individual fragrance ingredients.

The applied product and fragrance ingredient exposures are presented in the form of box-and-whisker plots which shows

Conclusions:
The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.

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Hall B, Steiling W, Safford B, Coroama M, Tozer S, Firmani C, McNamara C, Gibney M.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Feb;49(2):408-22. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.11.016. Epub 2010 Nov 18.
18/11/2010

European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments Part 2.

Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations’ exposure to other consumer products.

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McNamara C, Rohan D, Golden D, Gibney M, Hall B, Tozer S, Safford B, Coroama M, Leneveu-Duchemin MC, Steiling W.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Nov;45(11):2086-96. Epub 2007 Jul 7.
07/07/2007

Probabilistic modelling of European consumer exposure to cosmetic products.

In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.

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Hall B, Tozer S, Safford B, Coroama M, Steiling W, Leneveu-Duchemin MC, McNamara C, Gibney M.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Nov;45(11):2097-108. Epub 2007 Jun 16.
16/06/2007

European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments.

Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.

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Tozer S, Kelly S, O’Mahony C, Daly EJ, Nash JF.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Sep;83:103-10. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.06.005. Epub 2015 Jun 16
16/06/2015

Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable “safe levels” and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 渭g/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment.

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Daly Edmond James, David Rohan, Cronan McNamara
Publication of US20110138055A1 2011-06-09
09/06/2011

Patent: Resource allocation system : US 20110138055 A1

The present application provides a scalable system for managing requests for compute resources using a cloud computing architecture. The system estimates the total processing time of each computation in advance and monitors the progress of each computation to provide a more accurate estimate of remaining processing time. In this way, a determination may be made as each new computation request is received as to whether an additional resource is required or whether an existing resource would be suitable.

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McNamara Cronan, O’Mullane, Brian, Creme Software Ltd.
Publication of US20170076113A1
16/03/2017

Patent: System and method for secure analysis of datasets: 20170076113

The present application provides a computer system which allows a user to make available a dataset for analysis by others whilst hiding the contents of the dataset.

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Ross John; Driver, Jeffrey; Lunchick, Curt; O’Mahony, Cian
Outlooks on Pest Management, Volume 26, Number 1, February 2015, pp. 33-37(5)
01/02/2015

Models for estimating human exposure to pesticides, Outlooks on Pest Management

Any quantitative understanding of human risk from exposure to pesticides requires knowledge of both hazard (the intrinsic ability of a pesticide to cause harm) and exposure (absorbed dose), i.e., risk is directly proportional to the product of hazard and exposure. Thus, regardless of potential high hazard, risk may be insignificant if exposure is very low, and exposure-driven risk assessment is increasingly being recognized as being the best path forward for the protection of human health. In fact, regulatory agencies did not start doing quantitative risk assessments for pesticides using endpoints other than lethality until the 1970s in part because the analytical tools to sensitively measure exposure were lacking. Quantifying exposure to pesticides required analytical methods such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography that weren?t commercially available until the mid-1960s to early 1970s, respectively. With the advent of quadrapole mass spectroscopy in the early 1970s the ability to quantify sub milligram per kilogram bodyweight exposures to a wide variety of pesticides with confidence became commonplace. Analytical capability has continued to improve, and it is now possible to measure exposures in the nanogram and sometimes pictogram per kilogram range. As our quantitative knowledge of human exposure matured, it was desirable to extrapolate the knowledge from one chemical that had been measured to others that had not. Indeed, by the early 1980s it became evident that handler exposure to conventional pesticides was generic and not chemical specific. Part of the driving factor to do this modeling was that definitive exposure measurements for one chemical under one set of conditions was costly (>?100,000) and time consuming (months), and the combinations and permutations of exposure scenarios and pesticides are staggering. Models allow us to estimate the exposure to a new active substance or rank exposure of one pesticide to others used in similar conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a brief overview of the range of human exposure models that are available, and the route or pathway of exposure for which they estimate dose with the hope that it provides an appreciation of the basic approaches, chronology and effort expended in developing them.

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Forster H, Walsh MC, O’Donovan CB, Woolhead C, McGirr C, Daly E, O’Riordan R, Celis-Morales C, Fallaize R, Macready AL, Marsaux CFM, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Kolossa S, Hartwig K, Mavrogianni C, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Godlewska M, Surwi艂艂o A, Gjelstad IMF, Drevon CA, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Martinez JA, Saris WHM, Daniel H, Lovegrove JA, Mathers JC, Gibney MJ, Gibney ER, Brennan L
J Med Internet Res 2016;18(6):e150
30/06/2016

A Dietary Feedback System for the Delivery of Consistent Personalized Dietary Advice in the Web-Based Multicenter Food4Me Study

Background:

Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice.

Objective:

The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system.

Methods:

The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study.

Results:

Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers.

Conclusions:

The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.

Trial Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ht5Dgj8I)

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Manios Y. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
European Journal of Nutrition, June 2018, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 1357鈥1368
13/03/2017

Associations of vitamin D status with dietary intakes and physical activity levels among adults from seven European countries: the Food4Me study

Purpose

To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates.

Methods

In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study.

Results

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D3聽(25-OHD3) concentration of <30 and 30鈥49.9聽nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%,聽P鈥<鈥0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%,聽P鈥<鈥0.05). Positive dose鈥搑esponse associations were also observed between 25-OHD3聽concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of 鈮5聽渭g/day from foods and 鈮5聽渭g/day from supplements, as well as engagement in 鈮30聽min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P鈥<鈥0.05) for maintaining sufficient (鈮50聽nmol/L) 25-OHD3聽concentrations.

Conclusions

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of 鈮10聽渭g/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30聽min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.

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San-Cristobal R. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity December 2017, 14:168
11/12/2017

Capturing health and eating status through a nutritional perception screening questionnaire (NPSQ9) in a randomised internet-based personalised nutrition intervention: the Food4Me study

Background

National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet.

Methods

Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n鈥=鈥2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n鈥=鈥1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively.

Results

A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (鈥=鈥夆垝0.181,聽p鈥<鈥0.001) and waist circumference (鈥=鈥夆垝0.155,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (鈥=鈥0.198,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (鈥=鈥0.155,聽p鈥<鈥0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (鈥=鈥0.299,聽p鈥<鈥0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (鈥=鈥0. 279,聽p鈥<鈥0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores.

Conclusions

Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice.

Trial registration

NCT01530139.

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Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial

Background:

To determine the efficacy of behavior change techniques applied in dietary and physical activity intervention studies, it is first necessary to record and describe techniques that have been used during such interventions. Published frameworks used in dietary and smoking cessation interventions undergo continuous development, and most are not adapted for Web-based delivery. The Food4Me study (N=1607) provided the opportunity to use existing frameworks to describe standardized Web-based techniques employed in a large-scale, internet-based intervention to change dietary behavior and physical activity.

Objective:

The aims of this study were (1) to describe techniques embedded in the Food4Me study design and explain the selection rationale and (2) to demonstrate the use of behavior change technique taxonomies, develop standard operating procedures for training, and identify strengths and limitations of the Food4Me framework that will inform its use in future studies.

Methods:

The 6-month randomized controlled trial took place simultaneously in seven European countries, with participants receiving one of four levels of personalized advice (generalized, intake-based, intake+phenotype鈥揵ased, and intake+phenotype+gene鈥揵ased). A three-phase approach was taken: (1) existing taxonomies were reviewed and techniques were identified a priori for possible inclusion in the Food4Me study, (2) a standard operating procedure was developed to maintain consistency in the use of methods and techniques across research centers, and (3) the Food4Me behavior change technique framework was reviewed and updated post intervention. An analysis of excluded techniques was also conducted.

Results:

Of 46 techniques identified a priori as being applicable to Food4Me, 17 were embedded in the intervention design; 11 were from a dietary taxonomy, and 6 from a smoking cessation taxonomy. In addition, the four-category smoking cessation framework structure was adopted for clarity of communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery.

Conclusions:

The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely.

Trial Registration:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6y8XYUft1)

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Marsaux C. FM et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
JMIR Publications 05.02.16 in Vol 18, No 2 (2016): February
05/02/2016

Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me)

Background:

There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on聽FTO聽genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing聽FTO聽risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention.

Methods:

The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)聽rs9939609聽in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of聽FTO聽risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) 脳聽FTO聽risk (yes/no).

Results:

At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk聽FTO聽genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of聽FTO聽risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts.

Conclusions:

No association between baseline PA and聽FTO聽risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing聽FTO聽risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies are warranted to confirm whether disclosure of nonrisk genetic test results has adverse effects on engagement in behavior change.

Trial Registration:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at: http://www.webcitation.org/6XII1QwHz)

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How reliable is internet-based self-reported identity, socio-demographic and obesity measures in European adults?

In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n聽=聽140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2聽weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual鈥檚 identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (聽鈭0.70聽kg [鈭3.6 to 2.1],聽p聽<聽0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (聽鈭0.29聽kg聽m鈭2聽[鈭1.5 to 1.0],聽p聽<聽0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93聽% of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study.

Trial registration:

NCT01530139

springer Genes Nutrition self-reported identity socio-demographic and obesity measures

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Fallaize R. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
Nutrients, Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health, 6 January 2018
06/01/2018

Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n聽= 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p聽< 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p聽trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p聽trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.

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Stewart-Knox B.J. et al on behalf of the Food4Me Study
Elsevier, Food Policy, Volume 63, August 2016, Pages 134-144
02/08/2016

Making personalised nutrition the easy choice: Creating policies to break down the barriers and reap the benefits

Personalised diets based on people鈥檚 existing food choices, and/or phenotypic, and/or genetic information hold potential to improve public dietary-related health. The aim of this analysis, therefore, has been to examine the degree to which factors which determine uptake of personalised nutrition vary between EU countries to better target policies to encourage uptake, and optimise the health benefits of personalised nutrition technology. A questionnaire developed from previous qualitative research was used to survey nationally representative samples from 9 EU countries (N聽=聽9381). Perceived barriers to the uptake of personalised nutrition comprised three factors (data protection; the eating context; and, societal acceptance). Trust in sources of information comprised four factors (commerce and media; practitioners; government; family and, friends). Benefits comprised a single factor. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare differences in responses between the United Kingdom; Ireland; Portugal; Poland; Norway; the Netherlands; Germany; and, Spain. The results indicated that respondents in Greece, Poland, Ireland, Portugal and Spain, rated the benefits of personalised nutrition highest, suggesting a particular readiness in these countries to adopt personalised nutrition interventions. Greek participants were more likely to perceive the social context of eating as a barrier to adoption of personalised nutrition, implying a need for support in negotiating social situations while on a prescribed diet. Those in Spain, Germany, Portugal and Poland scored highest on perceived barriers related to data protection. Government was more trusted than commerce to deliver and provide information on personalised nutrition overall. This was particularly the case in Ireland, Portugal and Greece, indicating an imperative to build trust, particularly in the ability of commercial service providers to deliver personalised dietary regimes effectively in these countries. These findings, obtained from a nationally representative sample of EU citizens, imply that a parallel, integrated, public-private delivery system would capture the needs of most potential consumers.

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O鈥橲ullivan AJ, S Pigat, C O鈥橫ahony, MJ Gibney, AI McKevitt
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 34 (11), 1863-1874
23/08/2017

Longitudinal modelling of the exposure of young UK patients with PKU to acesulfame K and sucralose

Artificial sweeteners are used in protein substitutes intended for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, PKU) to improve the variety of medical foods available to patients and ensure dietary adherence to the prescribed course of dietary management. These patients can be exposed to artificial sweeteners from the combination of free and prescribed foods. Young children have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for additives than adults, due to higher food intakes per kg body weight. Young patients with PKU aged 1鈥3聽years can be exposed to higher levels of artificial sweeteners from these dual sources than normal healthy children and are at a higher risk of exceeding the ADI. Standard intake assessment methods are not adequate to assess the additive exposure of young patients with PKU. The aim of this study was to estimate the combination effect on the intake of artificial sweeteners and the impact of the introduction of new provisions for an artificial sweetener (sucralose, E955) on exposure of PKU patients using a validated probabilistic model. Food consumption data were derived from the food consumption survey data of healthy young children in the United Kingdom from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, 1992鈥2012). Specially formulated protein substitutes as foods for special medical purposes (FSMPs) were included in the exposure model to replace restricted foods. Inclusion of these protein substitutes is based on recommendations to ensure adequate protein intake in these patients. Exposure assessment results indicated the availability of sucralose for use in FSMPs for PKU leads to changes in intakes in young patients. These data further support the viability of probabilistic modelling as a means to estimate food additive exposure in patients consuming medical nutrition products.

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Micronutrient exposure modelling: To build a refined safety assessment for micronutrients

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Pigat Sandrine, Rosalyn O’Connor
The FASEB Journal 29 (1_supplement), 905.3
01/04/2015

Probabilistic Bioactive Food Compound Intakes in the European BACCHUS Project

Objective

The EU funded BACCHUS project aims to develop tools and resources to study relationships between bioactive food compound intakes and cardiovascular health in humans. To handle variation and uncertainty of bioactive levels in foods a probabilistic model of bioactive intakes was used to estimate distributions of population intakes.

Methods

To assess food bioactive intake distributions in Europe, national food intake surveys were used from the UK, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain. To account for variability and uncertainty of bioactive concentrations within foods, the foods consumed were linked to discrete bioactive concentration distributions using published data on plant based foods as captured in the eBasis database. Daily bioactive population intakes were calculated using a probabilistic intake model in the Creme Nutrition庐 software.

Results

Data shows apple (g/day) and catechin (mg/day) intakes from apples and apple products in the four countries.

Daily intakes (mg/day) Ireland UK Spain Norway
Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile) Mean (95%ile)
Apple + Apple Products 33 (135) 32 (129) 42 (183) 78 (300)
Catechin 1卤0.1 (5.8卤0.4) 1卤0.1 (5.2卤0.3) 1.3卤0.06 (8卤0.4) 2.5卤0.14 (14.8卤1.0)
Epicatechin 13卤0.6 (56.5卤3.5) 12.9卤0.65 (54.5卤3.6) 16.7卤0.48 (73.1卤2.4) 29.8卤1.06 (119.6卤6.0)
Epigallocatechin 22.4卤0.9 (92.2卤4.1) 21.7卤1.0 (88.2卤4.9) 28.9卤0.8 (125.2卤6.8) 53.1卤1.8 (204.9卤7.7)
Epicatechin-gallate 0.1卤0.0 (0.3卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.2卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.3卤0.0) 0.1卤0.0 (0.6卤0.0)
Conclusion

This study enables the link between bioactive concentration levels in foods and representative population intakes, using probabilistic intake models to better estimate full intake distributions in a population.

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Pigat, S., O’Mahony, C.
The FASEB Journal 29 (1_supplement), 384.8
18/01/2019

A Framework for the Predictive Modelling of Public Health Nutrition Strategies

Research Questions

Within public health nutrition, it is of crucial importance to monitor adequate as well as safe nutritional intakes within a population. Food policy initiatives around dietary intakes include voluntary industry reformulation, portion size reductions, food fortification and consumer behavioral changes. Predictive intake models can be used to assess the likely impact of such policies before their implementation.

Methods

Creme Nutrition, a web based dietary intake software which combines national food consumption and food composition data, includes various models to assess the impact of different strategies, including probabilistic food substitution, portion size modification, and food reformulation. A case study was used to demonstrate the model for sodium reduction using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2008-2010. In this model, sodium content in bread was reduced by 20%, soups were replaced by low sodium soups containing no more than 120mg/100g and pretzel consumption was substituted by one apple at a replacement probability of 70% to model partial consumer adherence probabilistically.

Results

After modelling sodium intakes in the US population, mean total daily sodium intakes in adults decrease from 3671.9卤34.1mg/day to 3512.9卤33mg/day. For the high sodium consumers (97.5%ile) total daily sodium intakes are reduced from 7337.85卤185.6mg/day to 7090.7卤170.8mg/day.

Conclusions

The proposed approach demonstrates the viability of assessing and combining different scenarios to predict the impact of a change on a population’s or a sub-population’s diet via public health initiatives.

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